Jeyasingh, R., Fong, S., Lee, J., Li, Z., Chang, K.W., Mantegazza, D., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K.E., and Wong, H.S.P., 2014, “Ultrafast Characterization of Phase-Change Material Crystallization Properties in the Melt-Quenched Amorphous Phase,” Nano Letters, Vol. 14, pp. 3419-3426
Phase change materials are widely considered for application in nonvolatile memories because of their ability to achieve phase transformation in the nanosecond time scale. However, the knowledge of fast crystallization dynamics in these materials is limited because of the lack of fast and accurate temperature control methods. In this work, we have developed an experimental methodology that enables ultrafast characterization of phase-change dynamics on a more technologically relevant melt-quenched amorphous phase using practical device structures. We have extracted the crystallization growth velocity (U) in a functional capped phase change memory (PCM) device over 8 orders of magnitude (10–10 < U < 10–1 m/s) spanning a wide temperature range (415 < T < 580 K). We also observed direct evidence of non-Arrhenius crystallization behavior in programmed PCM devices at very high heating rates (>108 K/s), which reveals the extreme fragility of Ge2Sb2Te5 in its supercooled liquid phase. Furthermore, these crystallization properties were studied as a function of device programming cycles, and the results show degradation in the cell retention properties due to elemental segregation. The above experiments are enabled by the use of an on-chip fast heater and thermometer called as microthermal stage (MTS) integrated with a vertical phase change memory (PCM) cell. The temperature at the PCM layer can be controlled up to 600 K using MTS and with a thermal time constant of 800 ns, leading to heating rates 108 K/s that are close to the typical device operating conditions during PCM programming. The MTS allows us to independently control the electrical and thermal aspects of phase transformation (inseparable in a conventional PCM cell) and extract the temperature dependence of key material properties in real PCM devices.