Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Reifenberg, J.P., Panzer, M.A., Rowlette, J.A., and Goodson, K.E., 2011, “Temperature-Dependent Thermal Properties of Phase-Change Memory Electrode Materials,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, pp.1281-1283.



The programming current required to switch a phase-change memory cell depends upon the thermal resistances in the device. In many designs, significant heat loss occurs through the electrode. This letter investigates the thermal properties of a multilayer electrode stack. This material offers greater thermal resistance than single-material electrodes due to the presence of multiple thermal boundary resistances (TBRs), reducing heat loss from the device and potentially lowering the programming current. Picosecond time-domain thermoreflectance interrogates the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of three as-deposited and postannealed electrode materials: carbon, titanium nitride, and tungsten nitride. These data are used to extract the temperature-dependent, as-deposited, and postannealed TBR in two multilayer electrode stacks: carbon-titanium nitride and tungsten-tungsten nitride. The C-TiN stacks demonstrate an as-deposited TBR of 4.9 m2K/GW, increasing to 11.9 m2K/GW  postanneal. The W-WNx stacks demonstrate an as-deposited TBR of 3.9 m2K/GW, decreasing to 3.6 m2 K/GW postanneal. These resistances are equivalent to electrode films with thickness  on the order of tens of nanometers.