Fundamental Cooling Limits for High Power Density GaN Electronics

Won, Y., Cho, J., Agonafer, D., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K.E., 2015, "Fundamental Cooling Limits for High Power Density GaN Electronics," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 5, pp. 737-744.

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The peak power density of GaN high-electron-mobility transistor technology is limited by a hierarchy of thermal resistances from the junction to the ambient. Here, we explore the ultimate or fundamental cooling limits for junction-to fluid cooling, which are enabled by advanced thermal management technologies, including GaN–diamond composites and nanoengineered heat sinks. Through continued attention to near-junction resistances and extreme flux convection heat sinks, heat fluxes beyond 300 kW/cm2 from individual 2-μm gates and 10 kW/cm2 from the transistor footprint will be feasible. The cooling technologies under discussion here are also applicable to thermal management of 2.5-D and 3-D logic circuits at lower heat fluxes. 

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