Nanomaterials for 3D Chip/Packaging Thermal Management

Sponsors: 
SRC ASCENT, Special Google-Intel Joint Contract, NSF POETS

Hotspot mitigation, thermal management paths, and thermomechanical degradation are key challenges for 3D integration, in particular due to the increased quantity and complexity of "thermally critical" interfaces. The semiconductor industry (ranging from low-power portables to microprocessors and power ASICs) is deeply concerned about handling the high heat fluxes and the related failure mechanisms in 3D stacked die and advanced packaging structures.

We are developing a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials with targeted combinations of thermal, mechanical, optical, electrical, and other properties, including very low thermal resistance  and robustness during thermal cycling. Ongoing work includes novel underfill materials, encapsulation, and 3D chip attachment. This includes disordered mixtures of combinations of nanowires or porous structures, and we are developing metrology for distributed thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties as well as their evolution with temperature cycling. We extended our novel measurement strategy for the in-plane elastic modulus of nano materials based on a micromechanical resonator approach.

A major historic effort, still ongoing, is the development of mechanically compliant interfaces with high thermal conductivities. The number of interfaces renders 3D designs particularly vulnerable to thermal cycling, which tends to increase interface resistances through void formation and chemical diffusion. There is an urgent need for thermal and thermomechanical techniques that address the specific interface challenges in TSV-enabled material systems and geometries.  Our past work in this area has focused on thermal interface materials based on aligned carbon nanotube films. More recently we are focussed on the use of micro and nanostructured metals for this purpose, including metal inverse opal structures, thereby achieving more robust solutions that can be integrated with a variety of promosing materials such as PDMS.

PROJECT PUBLICATIONS

Xu, R.L., Rojo, M.M., Islam, S.M., Sood, A., Vareskic, B., Katre, A., Mingo, N., Goodson, K.E., Xing, H.G., Jena, D., Pop, E., 2019, "Thermal Conductivity of Crystalline AlN and the Influence of Atomic-Scale Defects," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 126, 185105.

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Barako, M.T., Lingamneni, S., Katz, J.S., Liu, T., Goodson, K.E., and Tice, J., 2018, "Optimizing the Design of Composite Phase Change Materials for High Thermal Power Density," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 124, 145103.

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Sood, A., Cheaito, R., Bai, T., Kwon, H., Wang, Y., Li, C., Yates, L., Bougher, T., Graham, S., Asheghi, M., Goorsky, M., Goodson, K.E., 2018, "Direct Visualization of Thermal Conductivity Suppression due to Enhanced Phonon Scattering Near Individual Grain Boundaries," Nano Letters, Vol. 18, pp. 3466-3472.

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Barako, M.T., Isaacson, S.G., Lian, F., Pop, E., Dauskardt, R.H., Goodson, K.E., and Tice, J., 2017, "Dense Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Composites as High Performance Thermal Interface Materials," ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 9, article 42067.

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Won, Y., Gao, Y., Panzer, M.A., Xiang, R., Maruyama, S., Kenny, T.W., Cai, W., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "Zipping Entanglement, and the Elastic Modulus of Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, pp 20426-20430.

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Marconnet, A.M., Panzer, M.P., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "Thermal Conduction Phenomena in Carbon Nanotubes and Related Nanostructured Materials," Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 85, pp. 1296-1327.

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Touzelbaev, M.N., Miler, J., Yang, Y., Refai-Ahmed, G., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "High-Efficiency Transient Temperature Calculations for Applications in Dynamic Thermal Management of Electronic Devices," Journal of Electronic Packaging, Vol. 135, pp. 031001-1 to 031001-8.

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Gao, Y., Kodama, T., Won, Y., Dogbe, S., Pan, L., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Impact of Nanotube Density and Alignment on the Elastic Modulus near the Top and Base Surfaces of Aligned Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films," Carbon, Vol. 50, pp. 3789-3798.

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Won, Y., Gao, Y., Panzer, M.A., Dogbe, S., Pan, L., Kenny, T.W., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Mechanical Characterization of Aligned Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube Films," Carbon, Vol. 50, pp 347-355.

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Marconnet, A.M., Yamamoto, N., Panzer, M.A., Wardle, B.K., and Goodson, K.E., 2011, "Thermal Conduction in Aligned Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposites with High Packing Density," ACS Nano, Vol. 5, pp. 4818-4825.

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Panzer, M.A., Duong H.M., Okawa, J., Shiomi, J., Wardle, B.L., Maruyama, S., Goodson, K.E., 2010, "Temperature-Dependent Phonon Conduction and Nanotube Engagement in Metallized Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Films, " Nano letters, Vol. 10, pp 2395-2400.

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Panzer, M.A., Zhang, G., Mann, D., Hu, X., Pop, E., Dai, H., and Goodson, K.E., 2008, "Thermal Properties of Metal-Coated Vertically-Aligned Single-Wall Nanotube Arrays," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 130, 052401.

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Pop, E., Mann, D.A., Goodson, K.E., and Dai, H., 2007, "Electrical and Thermal Transport in Metallic Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes on Insulating Substrates," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 101, 093710-093720.

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Hu, X., Panzer, M.A., Goodson, K.E., 2007, "Infrared Microscopy Characterization of Opposing Carbon Nanotube Arrays," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 129, pp. 91-93.

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Hu, X., Padilla, A.A., Xu, J., Fisher, T.A., and Goodson, K.E., 2006, "3 omega Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity of Vertically Oriented Carbon Nanotubes on Silicon," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 128, pp. 1109-1113.

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Pop, E., Mann, D., Wang, Q., Goodson, K.E., and Dai, H., 2006, "Thermal Conductance of an Individual Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube above Room Temperature," Nano Letters, Vol. 6, pp. 96-100.

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Pop, E., Mann, D., Cao, J., Wang, Q., Goodson, K.E., and Dai, H., 2005, "Negative Differential Conductance and Hot Phonons in Suspended Nanotube Molecular Wires," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 95, pp. 155505-155509.

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Shelling, P., Li, S., and Goodson, K.E., 2005, "Managing Heat for Electronics," Materials Today, June, pp. 30-35.

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Zhou, P., and Goodson, K.E., 2001, "Subpixel Displacement and Deformation Gradient Measurement using Digital Image/Speckle Correlation (DISC)," Optical Engineering, Vol. 40, pp. 1613-1620.

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Kurabayashi, K., and Goodson, K.E., 1998, "Precision Measurement and Mapping of Die-Attach Thermal Resistance," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. A21, pp. 506-514.

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