Limits of Microfluidic Heat Sinks for Power Electronics & Data Centers

Sponsors: 
ARPA-E, NSF POETS Center, Ford, Intel, Google, Bosch
Collaborators: 
NREL, UC Merced, Toyota, U of Arkansas, U of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Ford, Bosch

The development of high performance heat exchangers has enjoyed a long tradition of research at Stanford University dating back to the early work by Kays and London (Compact Heat Exchangers, 1958) and the progress by Tuckerman and Pease on the first microchannel heat sink (Electron Device Letters, 1980).

We are rapidly extending this tradition with breakthrough approaches to heat sink design based on microfabrication, innovative materials, engineered surfaces, and 3D hierarchical manifolding.  This work engages multiple students focussing on boiling fundamentals, surface chemistry, phase separation in variable-permeability porous media, and micro/nanofabrication.  There are extensive simulation and experimental components to these projects, as well as active cooperations with simulation groups and companies seeking applications of these novel heat sinks.

The Nanoheat Lab and collaborators have been at the forefront of microfluidic cooling research for nearly two decades, including early work on MEMS-based metrology for temperature and phase distributions in two-phase microchannel convection. Additional progress includes visualization methods for phase and pressure distributions in microchannel convection, as well as characterization of microchannel condensation flow.

We also provided the first demonstration and characterization of a novel vapor-escape microfluidic heat exchanger, which uses a gas-permeable membrane to reduce the pressure drop required to achieve thermal resistance targets. We are exploring the use of nanostructured materials, including silicon nanopillar arrays, as advanced wicking structures for compact heat pipes and vapor chambers.  This approach was integrated with 3D manifolding, etched diamond microchannels (with Raytheon), and copper inverse opals as part of the DARPA ICECOOL Program to achieve a record-setting heat sink for power electronics cooling.

In 2001 and 2002, this group authored series of patents that were the foundation for a startup company, Cooligy, which developed novel and sold microfluidic heat sinks for Apple desktop computers in 2005 and 2006. Cooligy was acquired by Emerson in 2005.  Today, we are collaborating with leading vehicle and  power electronics companies on designs that excel in this critical application space.

PROJECT PUBLICATIONS

Terzis, A., Ramachandranm A., Wang, K., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K.E., and Santiago, J.G., "High-Frequency Water Vapor Sorption Cycling Using Fluidization of Metal-Organic Frameworks," Cell Reports Physical Science, Vol. 1., 100057.

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Kharangate, C.R., Libeer, W., Palko, J., Lee, H., Shi, J., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K.E., 2020, "Investigation of 3D Manifold Architecture Heat Sinks in Air-Cooled Condensers," Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 167, 114700.

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Liu, T., Palko, J.W., Katz, J.S., Dede, E.M., Zhou, F., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2019, "Tunable, Passive Thermal Regulation through Liquid to Vapor Phase Change," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 115, 254102. DOI: 10.1063/1.5133795.

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Jung, K.W., Kharangate, C.R., Lee, H., Palko, J., Zhou, F., Asheghi, M., Dede, E.M., Goodson, K.E., 2019, "Embedded cooling with 3D manifold for vehicle power electronics application: Single-phase thermal-fluid performance," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 130, pp. 1108-1119.

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Kong, D., Jung, K.W., Jung, S., Jung, D., Schaadt, J., Iyengar, M., Malone, C., Kharangate, C.R., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K.E., and Lee, H., 2019, "Single-phase thermal and hydraulic performance of embedded silicon micro-pin fin heat sinks using R245fa," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol., 141, pp. 145-155.

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Zhang, C., Palko, J.W., Rong, G., Pringle, K.S., Barako, M.T., Dusseault, T.J., Asheghi, M., Santiago, J.G. and Goodson, K.E., 2018. "Tailoring permeability of microporous copper structures through template sintering," ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 10, pp. 30487-30494.

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Zhang, Palko, Barako, Asheghi, Santiago, Goodson, 2018, "Enhanced Capillary‚ÄźFed Boiling in Copper Inverse Opals via Template Sintering," Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 10, 1803689. DOI: 10.1002/afm.201803689

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Pallo, N., Kharangate, C., Modeer, T., Schaadt, J., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K.E., and Pilawa-Podgurski, R., "Modular Heat Sink for Chip Scale GaN Transistors in Multilevel Converters," Proceedings of the Applied Power Electronics Conference, San Antonio, TX, March 4-8,

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Agonafer, Lee, Vasquez, Won, Jung, Lingamneni, Ma, Shan, Shuai, Du, Maitra, Palko, Goodson, 2018, "Porous Micropillar Structures for Retaining Low Surface Tension Liquids,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 514, pp. 316-327.  COVER IMAGE

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Barako, M.T.Sood, A., Zhang, C., Wang, J., Kodama, T.Asheghi, M., Zheng, X.L., Braun, P.V., and Goodson, K.E., 2016, “Quasi-ballistic Electronic Thermal Conduction in Metal Inverse Opals,” Nano Letters, Vol. 16, pp. 2754-2761  DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00468

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Cho, J., and Goodson, K.E., 2015, "Thermal Transport: Cool Electronics," Nature Materials, Vol. 14, pp. 136-137.

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Palko, J.W., Zhang, C., Wilbur, J.D., Dusseault, T.J., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K.E., and Santiago, J.G., 2015, "Approaching the Limits of Two-Phase Boiling Heat Transfer:  High Heat Flux and Low Superheat," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, 253903.

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Lee, H., Agonafer, D. D., Won, Y., Houshmand, F., Gorle, C.,  Asheghi, M., Goodson, K. E., 2016, "Thermal Modeling of Extreme Heat Flux Microchannel Coolers for GaN-on-SiC Semiconductor Devices," Journal of Electronic Packaging, Vol. 138, 010907.  

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Agonafer, D.D., Lopez, K., Palko, J.W., Won, Y., Santiago, J.G., and Goodson, K.E., 2015, "Burst behavior at a capillary tip: Effect of low and high surface tension," Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 455, pp. 1-5.  doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2015.05.033

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Aly, M.M.S., Gao, M., Hills, G., Lee., C.-S., Pitner, G., Shulaker, M.M., Wu, T.F., Asheghi, M., Bokor, J., Franchetti., F., Goodson, K.E., Kozyrakis, C., Markov, I., Olukotin, K., Pileggi, L., Pop, E., Rabaey, J., Re, C., Wong, H.-S., Mitra, S., 2015, "Energy-Efficient Abundant-Data Computing:  The N3XT 1,000X," IEEE Computer, Vol. 48, pp. 24-33.

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Chiriac, V., Malloy, S., Anderson, J., and Goodson K.E., 2015, "A Figure of Merit for Smart Phone Thermal Management," Electronics Cooling, Vol. 17, pp. 18-23.

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Touzelbaev, M.N., Miler, J., Yang, Y., Refai-Ahmed, G., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "High-Efficiency Transient Temperature Calculations for Applications in Dynamic Thermal Management of Electronic Devices," Journal of Electronic Packaging, Vol. 135, pp. 031001-1 to 031001-8.

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Miler, J., Etessam-Yazdani, K., Asheghi, M., Touzelbaev, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Temperature Sensor Distribution, Measurement Uncertainty, and Data Interpretation for Microprocessor Hotspots,"  IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, under review.

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David, M.P., Miler, J., Steinbrenner, J., Yang, Y., Touzelbaev, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2011, "Hydraulic and Thermal Characteristics of a Vapor Venting Two-phase Microchannel Heat Exchanger," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 54, pp. 5504-5516.

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David, M.P., Steinbrenner, J.E., Miler, J., and Goodson, K.E., 2011, "Adiabatic and Diabatic Two-Phase Venting Flow in a Microchannel," International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 37, pp. 1135-1146.

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Gharagozloo, P.E., Goodson, K.E., 2011, "Temperature-dependent aggregation and diffusion in nanofluids," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 54, pp. 797-806.

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Won Y., Wang E.N., Goodson K.E., and Kenny, T.W., 2011, "3-D visualization of flow in microscale jet impingement systems," International Journal of Thermosciences, Vol. 50, pp. 325-331.

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Lee, J., Gharagozloo, P.E., Kolade, B., Eaton, J.K., and Goodson, K.E., 2010, "Nanofluid Convection in Microtubes," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 132, pp. 354-360.

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Rogacs, A., Steinbrenner, J.E., Rowlette, J.A., Weisse J.M., Zheng, X.L.L., Goodson, K.E., 2010, "Characterization of the Wettability of Thin Nanostructured Films in the Presence of Evaporation," Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 349, pp. 354-360.

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Gharagozloo, P.E., Goodson, K.E., 2010 "Aggregate Fractal Dimensions and Thermal Conduction in Nanofluids," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 108, 074309.

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Fang, C., David, M., Rogacs, A., and Goodson, K.E., 2010, "Volume of Fluid Simulation of Boiling Flow in a Vapor-Venting Microchannel," Frontiers of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 1, 013002.

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Fang, C., David, M., Wang, F.M., and Goodson, K.E., 2010, "Influence of Film Thickness and Cross-sectional Geometry on Hydrophilic Microchannel Condensation," International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol 36, pp. 608-619.

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Fang, C., Steinbrenner, J.E., Wang, F.M., and Goodson, K.E., 2010, "Impact of Wall Hydrophobicity on Condensation Flow and Heat Transfer in Silicon Microchannels," Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 20, 045018.

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Fogg, D., David, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2009, "Non-Invasive Measurement of Void Fraction and Liquid Temperature in Microchannel Flow Boiling," Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 46, pp. 725-736.

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Fogg, D.W., and Goodson, K.E., 2009, "Bubble-Induced Water Hammer in Microchannel Flow Boiling," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 131, 121006.

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Kolade, B., Goodson, K.E., and Eaton, J.K., 2009, "Convective Performance of Nanofluids in a Laminar Thermally Developing Tube Flow," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 131, 052402.

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Buongiorno, J., Gharagozloo, P.E., Goodson, K.E., et al., 2009, "A Benchmark Study on the Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, 094312.

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Fang, C., Hidrovo, C., Wang, F.M., Eaton, J., and Goodson, K.E., 2008, "3-D Numerical Simulation of Contact Angle Hysteresis for Microscale Two-Phase Flow," International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 34, pp. 690-705.

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Oh, D.W., Jain, A., Eaton J.K., Goodson K.E., and Lee, J.S., 2008, "Thermal Conductivity Measurement and Sedimentation Detection of Aluminum Oxide Nanofluids by using the 3 Omega Method," International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 29, pp. 1456-1461.

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Gharagozloo, P.E., Eaton, J.K., and Goodson, K.E., 2008, "Diffusion, Aggregation, and the Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, 103110.

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Wang, F.-M., Steinbrenner, J. E., Hidrovo, C. H., Kramer, T. A., Lee, E. S., Vigneron, S., Cheng, C.-H., Eaton, J. K. and Goodson, K. E., 2007, "Investigation of Two-Phase Transport Phenomena in Microchannels Using a Microfabricated Experimental Structure," Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 27, pp. 1728-1733.

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Steinbrenner, J.E., Hidrovo, C.H., Wang, F.- M., Lee, E.S., Vigneron, S., Kramer, T.A., Cheng, C.-H., Eaton, J.K. and Goodson, K.E., 2007, "Measurement and Modeling of Liquid Film Thickness Evolution in Stratified Two-Phase Microchannel Flows," Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 27, pp. 1722-1727.

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Wang, E.N., Devasenathipathy, S., Lin, H., Hidrovo, C., Santiago, J.G., Goodson, K.E., and Kenny, T.W., 2006, "A Hybrid Method for Bubble Reconstruction in Two-Phase Microchannels," Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 40, pp. 847-858.

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Hidrovo, C.H., Kramer, T.A., Wang, E.N., Vigneron, S., Steinbrenner, J.E., Koo, J.-M., Wang, F.-M., Fogg, D.W., Flynn, R.D., Lee, E.S., Cheng, C.-H., Kenny, T.W., Eaton, J.K. and Goodson, K.E., 2006, "Two-Phase Microfluidics for Semiconductor Circuits and Fuel Cells," Heat Transfer Engineering, Vol. 27, pp. 53-63.

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Koo, J.M., Im, S., Jiang, L., and Goodson, K.E., 2005, "Integrated Microchannel Cooling for Three-Dimensional Circuit Architectures," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 127, pp. 49-58.

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Kenny, T.W., Goodson, K.E., Santiago, J.G., Wang, E.N., Koo, J.M., L. Jiang, Pop, E., Sinha, S., Zhang, L., Fogg, D., Yao, S., Flynn, R., Cheng, C.H., and Hidrovo, C.H., 2005, "Advanced Cooling Technologies for Microprocessors," International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, Vol. 16, pp 107-133.

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Zhang, L., Wang, E.N., Goodson, K.E., and Kenny, T.W., 2005, "Phase Change Phenomena in Silicon Microchannels," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 48, pp.1572-1582.

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Wang, E.N., Zhang, L., Jiang, L., Koo, J.M., Maveety, J., Sanchez, E., Goodson, K.E., and Kenny, T.W., 2004, "Micromachined Jets for Liquid Impingement Cooling of VLSI Chips," IEEE/ASME Journal of MicroElectroMechanical Systems, Vol. 13, pp. 833-842.

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Wang, E.N., Devasenathipathy, S., Santiago, J.G., Goodson, K.E., and Kenny T.W., 2004, "Nucleation and Growth of Vapor Bubbles in a Heated Silicon Microchannel," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 128, p. 497.

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Goodson, K.E., Santiago, J.G., Kenny, T., Jiang, L., Zeng, S., Koo, J.M., Zhang, L., Yao, S., and Wang, E., 2002, "Electroosmotic Microchannel Cooling System for Microprocessors," Electronics Cooling, Vol. 8, pp. 46-47.

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Zhang L., Koo, J.M., Jiang L., Goodson K.E., Santiago J.G., Kenny T.W., 2002, "Measurements and Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Microchannels with Nearly-Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions," IEEE/ASME Journal of MicroElectroMechanical Engineering, Vol. 11, pp. 12-19.

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Jiang, Mikkelsen, Koo, Huber, Yao, Zhang, Zhou, Maveety, Prasher, Santiago, Kenny, Goodson, 2002, "Closed-Loop Electroosmotic Cooling System for VLSI Circuits," IEEE Proc. Components, Packaging, & Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 25, pp. 347-355.  SEMITHERM Best Paper, 2001.  Our US patents based on this paper: 6942018, 6991024, 7131486, 7185697, & 7334630. 

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Goodson, K.E., Kurabayashi, K., and Pease, R.F.W., 1997, "Improved Heat Sinking for Laser-Diode Arrays using Microchannels in CVD Diamond," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. B20, pp. 104-109.

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