Focussing in Microlenses Close to a Wavelength in Diameter,

Fletcher, D.A., Goodson, K.E., and Kino, G.S., 2001, "Focussing in Microlenses Close to a Wavelength in Diameter," Optics Letters, Vol. 26, pp. 399-401.

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Light focused from air into a spherical microlens is affected by diffraction at the lens surface as its diameter approaches the wavelength of light. Through an extension of Mie theory, we show that a converging wave that is incident upon a Si microlens with a diameter less than approximately 4 lambda creates a spot as much as 25% smaller than predicted with vector diffraction theory. Si microlenses only a wavelength in diameter are shown to be virtually insensitive to variations in the maximum illumination angle, and changes in index of refraction are not found to cause the proportional changes in spot size that would be expected from vector diffraction theory.

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