VLSI Interconnects and Passivation

Sponsors: 
Intel, SRC, MARCO IFC, Texas Instruments

With the scaling of silicon nanotransistors into the deep submicrometer regime, a variety of compounding factors are increasing the temperature rise in the multilevel interconnect systems in modern VLSI circuits. These include increasing levels of metallization layers, which increase the thermal resistance to the high conductivity substrate, as well as higher current densities and the exploration of novel dielectric materials with relatively low thermal conductivities.

Stanford has made extensive contributions to the measurement of thermal conduction properties relevant for multilevel interconnects, as well as the prediction of temperature distributions and the measurement of temperature distributions along interconnects. Thermal conductivity measurements using both pattern electrical bridges and laser-reflectance techniques yielded data for conventional silicon oxides as a function of processing conditions as well as for novel organic passivation candidate materials. Nanosecond scanning laser-reflectance thermometry determined the temperature distributions along interconnects during rapid heating events such as those incurred during electrostatic discharge events. Simulations determined the scaling of temperature distributions with decreasing channel dimensions as well as the impact of current concentration in multilevel via structures.

PROJECT PUBLICATIONS

Panzer, M.A., Shandalov, M., Rowlette, J.A., Oshima, Y., Chen, Y.W., McIntyre, P.C., and Goodson, K.E., 2009, "Thermal Properties of Ultrathin Hafnium Oxide Gate Dielectric Films," IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 30, pp. 1269-1271.

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Im, S., Srivastava, N., Banerjee, K., and Goodson, K.E., 2005, "Scaling Analysis of Multilevel Interconnect Temperatures for High-Performance ICs," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 52, pp. 2710-2719.

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Fletcher, D.A., Kino, D.S., and Goodson, K.E., 2003, "Thermal Microscopy with a Microfabricated Solid Immersion Lens," Microscale Thermophysical Engineering, Vol. 7, pp. 267-273.

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Ju, Y.S., and Goodson, K.E., 1999, "Process-Dependent Thermal Transport Properties of Silicon Dioxide Films Deposited using Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposited," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 85, pp. 7130-7134.

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Ju, Y.S., Kurabayashi, K., and Goodson K.E., 1999, "Thermal Characterization of Anisotropic Thin Dielectric Films using Harmonic Joule Heating," Thin Solid Films, Vol. 339, pp. 160-164.

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Touzelbaev, M.N., and Goodson, K.E., 1998, "Applications of Micron-Scale Passive Diamond Layers for the IC and MEMS Industries," Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 7, pp. 1 - 14.

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Ju, Y.S., Kurabayashi, K., and Goodson, K.E., 1998, "Thermal Characterization of IC Interconnect Passivation using Joule Heating and Optical Thermometry," Microscale Thermophysical Engineering, Vol. 2, pp. 101-110.

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Ju, Y.S., and Goodson, K.E., 1997, "Thermal Mapping of Interconnects Subjected to Brief Electrical Stresses," IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 18, pp. 512-514.

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Ju, Y.S., Kading, O.W., Leung, Y.K., Wong, S.S., and Goodson, K. E., 1997, "Short-Timescale Thermal Mapping of Semiconductor Devices," IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 18, pp. 169-171.

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Kading, O.W., Skurk, H., and Goodson, K.E., 1994, "Thermal Conduction in Metallized Silicon-Dioxide Layers on Silicon," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 65, pp. 1629-1631.

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Goodson, K.E., and Flik, M.I., 1994, "Solid-Layer Thermal-Conductivity Measurement Techniques," Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol. 47, pp. 101-112.

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Goodson, K.E., Flik, M.I., Su, L.T., and Antoniadis, D.A., 1994, "Prediction and Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Amorphous Dielectric Layers," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 116, pp. 317-324.

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Goodson, K.E., Flik, M.I., Su, L.T., and Antoniadis, D.A., 1993, "Annealing-Temperature Dependence of the Thermal Conductivity of LPCVD Silicon-Dioxide Layers," IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 14, pp. 490-492.

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Goodson, K.E., and Flik, M.I., 1993, "Electron and Phonon Thermal Conduction in Epitaxial High-Tc Superconducting Films," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 115, pp. 17-25.

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