Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

Sponsors: 
DOE-NSF Partnership on Thermoelectrics. Bosch
Collaborators: 
University of South Florida, Bosch, Northrop Grumman

A key to improving vehicle efficiency is recovering a fraction of the energy lost with the hot exhaust gases, and a promising strategy is to integrate thermoelectric generators with the exhaust system. Key challenges include the lack of interface materials connecting the thermoelectrics and the heat sinks. These interfaces must accommodate the massive fluctuations in thermomechanical strain between heat exchangers and the thermoelectric converters while providing providing excellent thermal and electrical contact. Additional problems include the need for high-temperature p and n type thermoelectric materials.

A Stanford-lead team with collaborators at Bosch and the University of South Florida is working on interface technologies, high-temperature thermoelectric conversion materials, and related advancements in metrology. Stanford focuses on the development (and metrology) of interface materials based on carbon nanotubes and metallic alloys to achieve thermal, mechanical, and electrical performance targets. A key benefit of this technology is the unique combination of mechanical compliance and high thermal conductivity, which is a key enabler for combustion systems. USF continues its groundbreaking work on high-temperature, scalable p- and n-type thermoelectrics (e.g., skutterudites and half-Heusler alloys). Bosch addresses system-level design requirements, including specific performance targets for automotive product markets.

 

 

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1048796. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

 

PROJECT PUBLICATIONS

Dunham, M. T., Lorenzi, B., Andrews, S., Sood, A., Asheghi, M., Narducci, D., Goodson, K.E., 2016, “Enhanced phonon scattering by nanovoids in high thermoelectric power factor polysilicon thin films,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 109, 253104.

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Dunham, M.T., Barako, M.T., LeBlanc, S., Asheghi, M., Chen, B., and Goodson, K.E., 2015, "Power Density Optimization for Micro Thermoelectric Generators," Energy, Vol. 93, pp. 2006-2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2015.10.032

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LeBlanc, S., Yee, S. K., Scullin, M. L., Dames, C., and Goodson, K. E., 2014, "Material and manufacturing cost considerations for thermoelectrics," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 32, pp 313-327.

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Yee, S.K., Leblanc, S., Goodson, K.E., Dames, C., 2014, "Reply to the comment on "$ per W metrics for thermoelectric power generation: beyond ZT" by G. Nunes, Jr., Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, 7 DOE:10.1039/C3EE43700K," Energy and Environmental Science, Vol. 7., 3441.

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Barako, M.T., Gao, Y., Won, Y., Marconnet, A.M., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2014, "Reactive Metal Bonding of Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Thermal Interface Applications," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 12, pp 1906-1913.

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Yee, S., Leblanc, S., Goodson, K.E., and Dames, C., 2013, "A $/W Metric for Thermoelectric Power Generation: Beyond ZT," Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 6, 2561-2571.

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Leblanc, S., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "System and Material Parameter Effects on Thermoelectric Power Generation in Three Combustion Systems," Energy Conversion and Management, submitted and under review.

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Barako, M.T., Park, W., Marconnet, A.M., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "Thermal Cycling, Mechanical Degradation, and the Effective Figure of Merit of a Thermoelectric Module," Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 42, pp. 272-381.

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Park, W., Barako, M.T.Marconnet, A.M.Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E. "Effect of Thermal Cycling  on Commercial Thermoelectric Modules". IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITHERM) 2012, May 30 - June 1, San Diego, CA

 

 

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Barako, M.T., Gao, Y., Marconnet, A.M., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K.E. "Solder-Bonded Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interface Materials." IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITHERM) 2012, May 30 - June 1, San Diego, CA.

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Barako, M.T., Park, W., Marconnet, A.M., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E. "A Reliability Study with Infrared Imaging of Thermoelectric Modules under Thermal Cycling". IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITHERM) 2012, May 30 - June 1, San Diego, CA

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Gao, Y., Kodama, T., Won, Y., Dogbe, S., Pan, L., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Impact of Nanotube Density and Alignment on the Elastic Modulus near the Top and Base Surfaces of Aligned Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films," Carbon, Vol. 50, pp. 3789-3798.

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LeBlanc, S., Phadke, S., Kodama, T., Salleo, A., and Goodson, K.E., 2012,  "Electrothermal Phenomena in Zinc Oxide Nanowires and Contacts," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, 163105.

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Lee, J., Kim, S., Marconnet, A., in t' Zandt, M.A.A., Asheghi, M., Wong, H.S.P., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Thermoelectric Characterization and Power Generation using a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate," Journal of MicroElectroMechanical Systems, Vol. 21, pp. 4-6.

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Won, Y., Gao, Y., Panzer, M.A., Dogbe, S., Pan, L., Kenny, T.W., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Mechanical Characterization of Aligned Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube Films," Carbon, Vol. 50, pp 347-355.

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Gao, Y. , Marconnet, A. , Panzer, M., LeBlanc, S., Dogbe, S., Ezzahri, Y., Shakouri, A. and Goodson, K.E., 2010 "Nanostructured Interfaces for Thermoelectrics," Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 39, pp. 1456-1462.

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Pettes, A.M., Hodes, M.S., and Goodson, K.E., 2009, "Optimized Thermoelectric Refrigeration in the Presence of Thermal Boundary Resistance," IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, Vol. 32, pp. 423-430.

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Touzelbaev, M.N., Zhou, P., Venkatasubramanian, R., Goodson, K.E., 2001, "Thermal Characterization of Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 Superlattices," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 90, pp. 763-767.

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