Phonon & Electron Nonequilibrium at Interfaces

Sponsors: 
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), Intel
Students: 
Aditya Sood, Joe Katz

Interface thermal transport is arguably the leading fundamental challenge for the design and implementation of advanced nanostructure technologies for energy conversion, computation, and data storage. A leading problem is multicarrier interfacial transport (electron & phonon nonequilibrium), which is distinct from the single-carrier focus of prior and ongoing research in this group and in much of the broader research community. Another challenge is when one of the media has nanoscale lateral dimensions, e.g., a nanowire contact. Both of these fundamental problems are complicated by materials (e.g., GeSbTe compounds for phase change memory) where both electrons and phonons contribute at comparable levels to the thermal conductivity.

This work generates unique experimental structures that amplify and/or modify the impact of multicarrier energy transport at interfaces. Recent work has focussed on nanocale metal-dielectric multilayers, which have technical relevance as high-performance mirrors in semiconductor error detection. For conduction normal to these mirrors, the repetitive switching from phonon dominated to electron dominated transport strongly influences both the effective thermal conductivity. Additional experiments are focused on electron transport suppression in GST and related compounds using electric fields, and the modification of carrier contributions through large temperature gradients and/or small lateral spatial dimensions. The experiments that support this work at present include picosecond and nanosecond thermoreflectance, which isolates interface resistances through the associated short diffusion lengths, as well as heating and thermometry in e-beam patterned nanobridges.

PROJECT PUBLICATIONS

Cho, J., and Goodson, K.E., 2015, "Thermal Transport: Cool Electronics," Nature Materials, Vol. 14, pp. 136-137.

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Cho, J.Sood, A., Hayee, F., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K.E., "Thermal Characterization of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films on Silicon", ASME International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems (InterPACK) 2015, July 6 - July 9, San Francisco, CA.

 

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Cho, J., Won, Y., Francis, D., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., "Thermal Interface Resistance Measurements for GaN-on-Diamond Composite Substrates," IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS) 2014, Oct. 19-22, La Jolla, CA, USA.

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Cho, J., Li, Y., Hoke, W., Altman, D.A., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2014, "Phonon scattering in strained transition layers for GaN heteroepitaxy," Physical Review B, Vol. 89, 115301.

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Cho, J., Francis, D., Chao, P.C., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2015, "Cross-Plane Phonon Conduction in Polycrystalline Silicon Films," Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 137, 071303.

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Sood, A., Rowlette, J.A., Caneau, C.G., Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2014, "Thermal Conduction in Lattice-Matched Superlattices of InGaAs/InAlAs," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, 051909.

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Cho, J., Chu, K.K., Chao, P.C., McGray, C., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., "Thermal Conduction Normal to Thin Silicon Nitride Films on Diamond and GaN", IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITHERM) 2014, May 27 - 30, Orlando, FL, USA.

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Cho, J., Chao, P.C., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., "Phonon Conduction Normal to Polysilicon Films on Diamond," ASME 4th Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer (MNHMT) International Conference 2013, Dec. 11-14, Hong Kong, China.

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Won, Y.*, Cho, J.*, Agonafer, D., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., "Cooling Limits to GaN HEMT Technology," IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS) 2013, Oct. 13-16, Monterey, CA, USA.

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Cho, J., Kodama, T., Ishiwata, H., Dahl, J., Melosh, N., Shen, Z.-X., and Goodson, K.E., "Thermal Conductance in Diamondoid Self-assembled Monolayers", Materials Research Society (MRS) Spring Meeting, April 1-5, San Francisco, CA

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Cho, J., Li, Z., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., "Phonon-Defect Scattering and the Thermal Resistance of the Transition Layers for GaN Heteroepitaxy", Materials Research Society (MRS) Spring Meeting, April 1-5, San Francisco, CA

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Cho, J., Li, Z., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K. E., 2014, "Near-Junction Thermal Management: Thermal Conduction in Gallium Nitride Composite Substrates," Annual Review of Heat Transfer, Vol. 18, 2016.

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Lee, J., Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Kim, S., Asheghi, M., Wong, H.-S., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "Phonon and Electron Transport through Ge2Sb2Te5 Films and Interfaces Bounded by Metals," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, 191911.

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Cho., J., Li, Z., Bozorg-Gayeli, E., Kodama, T., Francis, D., Ejeckam, F., Faili, F., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2013,"Improved Thermal Interfaces of GaN-Diamond Composute Substrates for HEMT Applications," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 3, pp. 79-84.

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Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Li, Z., Asheghi, M., Delgado, G., Pokrovsky, A., Panzer, M., Wack, D., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Thermal Conduction Properties of Mo/Si Multilayers for Extreme Ultraviolet Optics," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 112, pp 083504-1 - 083504-7.

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Li, Z., Tan, S., Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Kodama, T., Asheghi, M., Delgado, G., Panzer, M., Pokrovsky, A., Wack, D., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Phonon Dominated Heat Conduction Normal to Mo/Si Multilayers with Period below 10 nm," Nano Letters, Vol. 12, pp. 3121-3126.

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Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Reifenberg, J.P., Asheghi, M., Wong, H.-S. P., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "Thermal Transport in Phase Change Memory Materials," Annual Review of Heat Transfer, Vol. 16, pp. 397-428.

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Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Li, Z., Asheghi, M., Delgado, G., Pokrovsky, A., Panzer, M., Wack, D., Goodson, K.E., 2011,  "High Temperature Thermal Properties of Thin Tantalum Nitride Films," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, 261906.

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Yoneoka, S., Lee, J., Liger, M., Yama, G.,  Kodama, T., Gunji, M., Provine, J., Howe, R.T., Goodson, K.E., and Kenny, T.W., 2012, "Electrical and Thermal Conduction in ALD Nanobridges Down to 7-nm Thickness," Nano Letters, Vol. 12, pp. 683-686.

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Reifenberg, J.P., Chang, K.W., Panzer, M.A., Kim, S., Rowlette, J.A., Asheghi, M., Wong, H.S.P., and Goodson, K.E., 2010, "Thermal Boundary Resistance Measurements for Phase-Change Memory Devices," IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 31, pp. 56-58.

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Reifenberg, J.P., Kencke, D.L., and Goodson, K.E., 2008, "The Impact of Thermal Boundary Resistance in Phase-Change Memory Devices," IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 29, pp. 1112-1114.

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Goodson, K.E., 2007, "Ordering up the Minimum Thermal Conductivity of Solids," Science Vol. 315, 342-343.

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Reifenberg, J.P., Panzer, M.A., Kim, S., Gibby, A.M., Zhang, Y., Wong, S., Wong, H.S., and Goodson, K.E., 2007, "Thickness and Stoichiometry Dependence of the Thermal Conductivity of GeSbTe Films," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, pp. 111904-111906.

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Sverdrup, P.G., Sinha, S., Uma, S., Asheghi, M., and Goodson, K.E., 2001, "Measurement of Ballistic Phonon Conduction Near Hotspots in Silicon," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 78, pp. 3331-3333.

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Sverdrup, P.G., Ju, Y.S.,and Goodson, K.E., 2001, "Sub-Continuum Simulations of Heat Conduction in Silicon-on-Insulator Transistors," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 123, pp. 30-37.

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Asheghi, M., Leung, Y.K., Wong, S.S., and Goodson, K.E., 1997, "Phonon-Boundary Scattering in Thin Silicon Layers," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 71, pp. 1798-1800.

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Goodson, K.E., 1996, "Thermal Conduction in Nonhomogeneous CVD Diamond Layers in Electronic Microstructures," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 118, pp. 279-286.

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Goodson, K.E., Kading, O.W., Rosler, M. and Zachai, R., 1995, "Thermal Conduction normal to Diamond-Silicon Boundaries," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 66, pp. 3134-3136.

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Goodson, K.E., Kading, O.W., Rosler, M. and Zachai, R., 1995, "Experimental Investigation of Thermal Conduction normal to Diamond-Silicon Boundaries," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 77, pp. 1385-1392.

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Kading, O.W., Skurk, H., and Goodson, K.E., 1994, "Thermal Conduction in Metallized Silicon-Dioxide Layers on Silicon," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 65, pp. 1629-1631.

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Goodson, K.E., and Flik, M.I., 1993, "Electron and Phonon Thermal Conduction in Epitaxial High-Tc Superconducting Films," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 115, pp. 17-25.

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Flik, M.I., Zhang, Z.M., Goodson, K.E., Siegal, M.P., and Phillips, J.M., 1992, "The Electron Scattering Rate in Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 Superconducting Films," Physical Review B, Vol. 46, pp. 5606-5614.

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Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Reifenberg, J.P., Panzer, M.A., Rowlette, J.A., and Goodson, K.E., 2011, "Temperature-Dependent Thermal Properties of Phase-Change Memory Electrode Materials," IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, pp.1281-1283.

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