Nanostructured Materials for 3D Electronic Packaging

Sponsors: 
ONR, SRC, AMD

Hotspot mitigation, thermal management paths, and thermomechanical degradation are key challenges for 3D integration, in particular due to the increased quantity and complexity of "thermally critical" interfaces. The semiconductor industry (ranging from low-power portables to high-power microprocessors) is deeply concerned about thermal management and related failure mechanisms in 3D packaging, particularly at the increasing number of "thermally-important" interfaces. The number of interfaces renders 3D designs particularly vulnerable to thermal cycling, which tends to increase interface resistances through void formation and chemical diffusion. There is an urgent need for thermal and thermomechanical techniques that address the specific interface challenges in TSV-enabled material systems and geometries.

We are developing a broad spectrum of nanostructured packaging materials with targeted combinations of thermal, mechanical, optical, electrical, and other properties. Our past work in this area has focused on thermal interface materials based on aligned carbon nanotube films. This work has been unique in the demonstration of excellent mechanical compliance (~ 100 MPa) together with very low thermal resistance (~0.03 m2K/W) and robustness during thermal cycling. Ongoing work in the TIM area is focused on implementation in thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery in vehicles, as well as detailed investigations of the physics governing thermal and mechanical properties. Our latest progress in this area includes nanostructured materials serving as underfill candidates, encapsulation, and 3D chip attachment. This includes disordered mixtures of combinations of carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles with a focus on metrology for distributed thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties as well as their evolution with temperature cycling. We are extending our novel measurement strategy for the in-plane elastic modulus of nano materials based on a micromechanical resonator approach.

PROJECT PUBLICATIONS

Won, Y., Gao, Y., Panzer, M.A., Xiang, R., Maruyama, S., Kenny, T.W., Cai, W., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "Zipping Entanglement, and the Elastic Modulus of Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, pp 20426-20430.

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Marconnet, A.M., Panzer, M.P., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "Thermal Conduction Phenomena in Carbon Nanotubes and Related Nanostructured Materials," Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 85, pp. 1296-1327.

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Touzelbaev, M.N., Miler, J., Yang, Y., Refai-Ahmed, G., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "High-Efficiency Transient Temperature Calculations for Applications in Dynamic Thermal Management of Electronic Devices," Journal of Electronic Packaging, Vol. 135, pp. 031001-1 to 031001-8.

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Gao, Y., Kodama, T., Won, Y., Dogbe, S., Pan, L., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Impact of Nanotube Density and Alignment on the Elastic Modulus near the Top and Base Surfaces of Aligned Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films," Carbon, Vol. 50, pp. 3789-3798.

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Won, Y., Gao, Y., Panzer, M.A., Dogbe, S., Pan, L., Kenny, T.W., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Mechanical Characterization of Aligned Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube Films," Carbon, Vol. 50, pp 347-355.

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Marconnet, A.M., Yamamoto, N., Panzer, M.A., Wardle, B.K., and Goodson, K.E., 2011, "Thermal Conduction in Aligned Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposites with High Packing Density," ACS Nano, Vol. 5, pp. 4818-4825.

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Panzer, M.A., Duong H.M., Okawa, J., Shiomi, J., Wardle, B.L., Maruyama, S., Goodson, K.E., 2010, "Temperature-Dependent Phonon Conduction and Nanotube Engagement in Metallized Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Films, " Nano letters, Vol. 10, pp 2395-2400.

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Panzer, M.A., Zhang, G., Mann, D., Hu, X., Pop, E., Dai, H., and Goodson, K.E., 2008, "Thermal Properties of Metal-Coated Vertically-Aligned Single-Wall Nanotube Arrays," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 130, 052401.

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Pop, E., Mann, D.A., Goodson, K.E., and Dai, H., 2007, "Electrical and Thermal Transport in Metallic Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes on Insulating Substrates," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 101, 093710-093720.

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Hu, X., Panzer, M.A., Goodson, K.E., 2007, "Infrared Microscopy Characterization of Opposing Carbon Nanotube Arrays," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 129, pp. 91-93.

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Hu, X., Padilla, A.A., Xu, J., Fisher, T.A., and Goodson, K.E., 2006, "3 omega Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity of Vertically Oriented Carbon Nanotubes on Silicon," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 128, pp. 1109-1113.

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Pop, E., Mann, D., Wang, Q., Goodson, K.E., and Dai, H., 2006, "Thermal Conductance of an Individual Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube above Room Temperature," Nano Letters, Vol. 6, pp. 96-100.

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Pop, E., Mann, D., Cao, J., Wang, Q., Goodson, K.E., and Dai, H., 2005, "Negative Differential Conductance and Hot Phonons in Suspended Nanotube Molecular Wires," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 95, pp. 155505-155509.

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Shelling, P., Li, S., and Goodson, K.E., 2005, "Managing Heat for Electronics," Materials Today, June, pp. 30-35.

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Zhou, P., and Goodson, K.E., 2001, "Subpixel Displacement and Deformation Gradient Measurement using Digital Image/Speckle Correlation (DISC)," Optical Engineering, Vol. 40, pp. 1613-1620.

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Kurabayashi, K., and Goodson, K.E., 1998, "Precision Measurement and Mapping of Die-Attach Thermal Resistance," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. A21, pp. 506-514.

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