Nanostructured Interface Materials

Sponsors: 
ONR, NSF, DOE, SRC, IFC/MARCO, AMD

Thermal interface materials (TIMs) play a central role in the performance and reliability of electronic systems. They are the route for thermal conduction between semiconductor chips and metal heat spreaders, heat pipes, and heat sinks, and must withstand thermomechanical stresses due to thermal cycling. Particularly challenging TIM applications include thermoelectric power generators and high-power radar systems.

We are exploring the use of nanostructured materials based for application as thermal interface materials. Early work focused on disordered mixtures of carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles, and more recent results have focused on aligned films of single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Metrology is a key part of this project because the distribution of thermal resistance between the internal film volume and its interfaces with metallization layers and the substrate are determined independently. We have also developed measurements of the in-plane elastic modulus of these films based on a micromechanical resonator approach, and have pioneered measurements of the thermal conductivities of individual carbon nanotubes using internal electrical heating. Ongoing work is focused on implementation in thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery in vehicles, as well as detailed investigations of the physics governing thermal and mechanical properties.

PROJECT PUBLICATIONS

Park, W., Sood, A., Park, J., Asheghi, M., Sinclair, R., and Goodson, K.E., "Enhanced Thermal Conduction through Nanostructured Interfaces," 2017, Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering, Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering, pp. 1-11.

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Chiriac, V., Malloy, S., Anderson, J., and Goodson K.E., 2015, "A Figure of Merit for Smart Phone Thermal Management," Electronics Cooling, Vol. 17, pp. 18-23.

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Won, Y., Gao, Y., Panzer, M.A., Xiang, R., Maruyama, S., Kenny, T.W., Cai, W., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "Zipping Entanglement, and the Elastic Modulus of Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, pp 20426-20430.

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Gao, Y., Marconnet, A.M., Xiang, R., Maruyama, S., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "Heat Capacity, Thermal Conductivity, and Interface Resistance Extraction for Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Films using Frequency-Domain Thermoreflectance," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 3, pp. 1524-1532.

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Marconnet, A.M., Panzer, M.P., and Goodson, K.E., 2013, "Thermal Conduction Phenomena in Carbon Nanotubes and Related Nanostructured Materials," Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 85, pp. 1296-1327.

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Gao, Y., Kodama, T., Won, Y., Dogbe, S., Pan, L., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Impact of Nanotube Density and Alignment on the Elastic Modulus near the Top and Base Surfaces of Aligned Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films," Carbon, Vol. 50, pp. 3789-3798.

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Won, Y., Gao, Y., Panzer, M.A., Dogbe, S., Pan, L., Kenny, T.W., and Goodson, K.E., 2012, "Mechanical Characterization of Aligned Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube Films," Carbon, Vol. 50, pp 347-355.

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Marconnet, A.M., Yamamoto, N., Panzer, M.A., Wardle, B.K., and Goodson, K.E., 2011, "Thermal Conduction in Aligned Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposites with High Packing Density," ACS Nano, Vol. 5, pp. 4818-4825.

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Panzer, M.A., Duong H.M., Okawa, J., Shiomi, J., Wardle, B.L., Maruyama, S., Goodson, K.E., 2010, "Temperature-Dependent Phonon Conduction and Nanotube Engagement in Metallized Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Films, " Nano letters, Vol. 10, pp 2395-2400.

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Gao, Y. , Marconnet, A. , Panzer, M., LeBlanc, S., Dogbe, S., Ezzahri, Y., Shakouri, A. and Goodson, K.E., 2010 "Nanostructured Interfaces for Thermoelectrics," Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 39, pp. 1456-1462.

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Pettes, A.M., Hodes, M.S., and Goodson, K.E., 2009, "Optimized Thermoelectric Refrigeration in the Presence of Thermal Boundary Resistance," IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, Vol. 32, pp. 423-430.

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Panzer, M.A., Zhang, G., Mann, D., Hu, X., Pop, E., Dai, H., and Goodson, K.E., 2008, "Thermal Properties of Metal-Coated Vertically-Aligned Single-Wall Nanotube Arrays," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 130, 052401.

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Panzer, M.P., and Goodson, K.E., 2008, "Thermal Resistance Between Low-Dimensional Nanostructures and Semi-Infinite Media," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, pp. 094301.

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Panzer, M.P., and Goodson, K.E., 2008, "Thermal Resistance Between Low-Dimensional Nanostructures and Semi-Infinite Media," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, pp. 094301.

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Pop, E., Mann, D.A., Goodson, K.E., and Dai, H., 2007, "Electrical and Thermal Transport in Metallic Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes on Insulating Substrates," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 101, 093710-093720.

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Hu, X., Panzer, M.A., Goodson, K.E., 2007, "Infrared Microscopy Characterization of Opposing Carbon Nanotube Arrays," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 129, pp. 91-93.

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Hu, X., Padilla, A.A., Xu, J., Fisher, T.A., and Goodson, K.E., 2006, "3 omega Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity of Vertically Oriented Carbon Nanotubes on Silicon," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 128, pp. 1109-1113.

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Pop, E., Mann, D., Wang, Q., Goodson, K.E., and Dai, H., 2006, "Thermal Conductance of an Individual Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube above Room Temperature," Nano Letters, Vol. 6, pp. 96-100.

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Pop, E., Mann, D., Cao, J., Wang, Q., Goodson, K.E., and Dai, H., 2005, "Negative Differential Conductance and Hot Phonons in Suspended Nanotube Molecular Wires," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 95, pp. 155505-155509.

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Shelling, P., Li, S., and Goodson, K.E., 2005, "Managing Heat for Electronics," Materials Today, June, pp. 30-35.

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Kurabayashi, K., and Goodson, K.E., 1998, "Precision Measurement and Mapping of Die-Attach Thermal Resistance," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. A21, pp. 506-514.

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